The synthesis of trichloroacetaldehyde w/ H2O has a low yield, how could this be altered to increase the yield
Lancenigo di Villorba (TV), Italy
You wrote :"The synthesis of trichloroacetaldehyde w/ H2O has a low yield...".
YES, IT IS!
You add :"....how could you this be altered to increase this yield".
DID YOU TRY FEED MANY ETHANOL IN A BUFFERED AQUEOUS MEDIA?
Its own other denomination are 1,1,1-TRICHLORO-ETHANAL or CHLORAL, the latter one is the most used.
CHLORAL shows a POLARITY very greater than
This is one among the most common Chlorinated Organic Compounds, e.g. it belongs to most common Chlorinated Solvents.
ACETALDEHYDE, in effects Chloral binds water in a stable fashion, so it forms HYDRATED CHLORAL.
Chloral may be used as anhestetic by breath its vapours, as Chloroform does.
Its High Chlorine Containts (e.g. Bound Chlorine) rises its chemical affinity.
You must avoid SUN's RAYONs and the other HEAT's SOURCEs.
You must avoid ANY STRONG REDUCING AGENTs, e.g. Aluminium, the other Active Metals and several METAL's POWDER in the Storage's Operations.
You must avoid ANY STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTs, e.g. CHLORATE SALTs, HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, etc.
Chemical media may mix several stuffs, in your case there is CHLORAL. Besides Chloral, there could be also WATER and CHLORINE : so, it may permit several Chemical Reactions, as the following ones :
-) Carbonylic Oxidations, e.g. converting Aldehydes to Carboxylic Acids, as it may do ;
-) Alpha-Chlorination Reactions, e.g. leading to Tri-Chloro-Compounds, as it is ;
-) Hydrolysis, e.g. involved in Haloformic Reactions toward Chloroform, as it may do.
In the worstest conditions, these media result able to destroy CHLORAL forming other chlorinated compounds, e.g. mainly TRICHLOROACETIC ACID (acidic media containing water) or CHLOROFORM (basic media containing water).
Chloral exists NOT in nature, so Chemical Industry have to produce it.
The most common process involve Ethanol as Its Main Organic Stuff.
The reactants, Dry Ethanol and Dry Chlorine, undergo intensive de-hydratation by INDIRECT EXPOSURE to Concentrated Sulphuric Bath. Now, they may meet one to the other one in the "Stream-Crossing" 's fashion, so they react while they rise upward a Reaction's Tower.
At the middle-height, these mixture undergoes a DIRECT SULPHURIC TREATMENT because a Sulphuric Stream downfalls from the Tower's Top : this Refining De-Hydratation leads the reaction to desired Yields.
Besides Chloral, Hydrochloric Acid's fumes are also present.
You are seeking for the conditions to get favour to CHLORAL's FORMING IN AQUEOUS MEDIA. These ones aren't the appropriate surrounding since Chloral tends to destroy in other Chlorinated Compounds.
Once it is obvious you must use CHLORINE's fumes, I may suggest you to operate onto the following parameters :
-) ETHANOL's LEVEL, I suggest you enhance it in order to appeal the well-known "MASS ACTION law", e.g. a statement valuable for the CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA IN LIQUID PHASES ;
-) pH's LEVEL, I suggest you control it in order to avoid the HALOFORMIC PHENOMENA (e.g. they need high pH's values) and in order to slow down the TriChloroAcetic Acid's forming (e.g. it goes fast at very low pH's values).
I hope this helps you.