How are p-orbitals involved in the formation of a pi bond?



Answer:
Two p atomic orbitals on adjacent atoms can interact to create two new molecular orbits, the pi molecular orbits. Two p orbitals next to each other can be oriented so the lobes of the same sign are on the same side of the nodal plane. In this case, the lobes that have the same mathematical sign interact to reinforce each other. The two orbitals are in phase and combine to form a bonding pi molecular orbital. If, however, the p orbitals are located so the lobes of opposite sign are on the same side of the nodal plane, they are out of phase and no bonding take place.
Each p atomic orbitalo has two lobes and a node at the nucleus. The pi molecular orbital, because it is created by side-to-side overlap of p orbitals , also has two lobes and a nodal plane.
For example, take acetyladehyde or acetone where there is a carbonly group. You can identify a 2p orbital on the crabon atom of the carbonyl group that is perpendicular to the plane defined by the three sp2 hybrid orbitals. Overlap between this orbital and a 2p orbital of oxygen results in the pi bond between oxygen and carbon. Basically, the pi bond is formed by the overlap of two parallel p orbitals, one on carbon and one on oxygen.
Two p atomic orbitals on adjacent atoms can interact to create two new molecular orbits, the pi molecular orbits. Two p orbitals next to each other can be oriented so the lobes of the same sign are on the same side of the nodal plane. In this case, the lobes that have the same mathematical sign interact to reinforce each other. The two orbitals are in phase and combine to form a bonding pi molecular orbital. If, however, the p orbitals are located so the lobes of opposite sign are on the same side of the nodal plane, they are out of phase and no bonding take place.
Each p atomic orbitalo has two lobes and a node at the nucleus. The pi molecular orbital, because it is created by side-to-side overlap of p orbitals , also has two lobes and a nodal plane.
For example, take acetyladehyde or acetone where there is a carbonly group. You can identify a 2p orbital on the crabon atom of the carbonyl group that is perpendicular to the plane defined by the three sp2 hybrid orbitals. Overlap between this orbital and a 2p orbital of oxygen results in the pi bond between oxygen and carbon. Basically, the pi bond is formed by the overlap of two parallel p orbitals, one on carbon and one on oxygen.

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