To the economist, “labor” involves?

To the economist, “labor” involves:

the efforts of volunteers and those efforts of people working on their hobbies.

only skilled workers.

only physical efforts of employees.

only mental efforts of employees.

any human effort in the production process

Answer:
In economics.labor involves any and all mental and physical effort by any/ all human beings in the process of production / generation of any/ all goods and services, with or without the aid of technology, equipmentor fuel and any other materials, provided that the ouput of goods/ services so generated has a scarcity value and in demand for use by human beings for the human beings or others.
The best answer here is:

"any human effort in the production process."
human effort involving physical movement.

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