How is tubular metal bent?

in industy??

The requirement is to avoid getting kinks which is what happens if you grab a tube and bend it over your knee.

Industrial benders usually consist of "formers" which are shaped metal guides these maintain the shape of the tube as it is bent by preventing it from spreading sideways. The tube on the outside of the bend is stretched and on the inside compressed.

Soft copper can be bent without formers and hard copper can be bent with a suitable spring inserted into the tube.

The power for large benders is usually hydraulic.
With a tubing bender. Electricians use a simple tubing bender when the bend EMT conduit.
Depending on exactly what you want bent, but I can explain more

If you are bending lets say, exhaust piping for a car, then you could use a mandrel bender it has a kind of ball that goes on the inside to keep the sides from caving in. They look like this

if you are bending pipe for say, wire conduit, you might use a hand bender, called a hickey, or a machine bender which functions similarly to the automotive one. They look like this

The answers post by the user, for information only, does not guarantee the right.

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