What is the definition of engineering (in general)?

NOT one of the definitions from the dictionary.

...and what are the different types of engineering like? [i.e. mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, genetic engineering, etc.]

Answer:
These are my words (whether they are in a dictionary or encyclopedia or not, in one form or another, I don't know):

Engineering is the art of taking scientific principles and putting them to practical use.

It's what I do every day. Here's a great example: we had a PhD scientist working in our company, and he could come up with some fantastic ideas based on optics, lasers, detectors, etc. all based on MatLab theories and calculations. I (along with a couple of other engineers) put it all into practice to make a cool working LADAR prototype that actually worked like the good Doctor wanted it to work. We took all those equations and theories and put them into practice.

.
Engineering is generally defined as an "application science" meaning not theoretical. This is the application of math, physics and principles or laws of science for the development or design of something.
Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. The Engineers' Council for Professional Development, also known as ECPD,defines Engineering as: "The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.". One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so have formal designations such as Professional Engineer , Chartered Engineer or Incorporated Engineer. The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of specialized subdisciplines that focus on the issues associated with developing a specific kind of product, or using a specific type of technology.

1- aerospace engineers
2- chemical engineers
3- civil engineers
4- electrical engineers
5- industrial engineers
6-materials engineers
7- mechanical engineers
8- structural engineers
9- systems engineers
Engineering = details + criticism.

Negs: short budgets, tight schedules, hi stress, sedentary job, not very exciting, large egos to deal with.

Pos: good salaries, ego job title,
Engineering = put genius to work.
Engineering is being able to design something with the least amount of time and material involvement as well as offering optimum efficiency, strength, reliability,operation and performance. Cost effectiveness being the key factor.
This is the definition that was accepted when I was in college:

An engineer utilizes the forces and laws of nature for the benefit of mankind.

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