What would you say are the ten most important inventions?

i guess, since the last two hundred years. when did they occur and what was their effect on society and science?

Answer:
Here are my votes in no particular order.

1. the light bulb
Early nineeenth century. It allowed people to work indoors and round the clock, increasing productivity and supported the Industrial Revolution.

2. the transistor
Early twentieth century. All electronics including phones, calculators, computers, radios, televisions use some kind of transistor technology replacing the old, power-hungry vacuum tubes and allowed computers to sit on desks rather than filling entire rooms. Best Buy would never exist.

3. the internal combustion engine
Late nineteenth century. Journeys that took dasy could now be done in hours and distant towns were now within reach, shrinking the world and bringing commerce and cultural exchange to the common person. The world moves in cars, for better or worse.

4. the wheel
Really, really early. The quintessential great invention, not only for transport, but as an essential component in any moving machine in the form of gears and spindles and motor parts.

5. paper
Way, way back. Before there were hard drives, photographs and audio tape, paper was the first recording device that would capture information to be viewed and shared for ages to follow. Everything about our ancestors not recorded on paper is agonizingly speculative. Books are still loved and cherished to this day and have failed to be dimmed by modern technology.

6. the printing press
Fifteenth century. Think of paper used as a broadcast medium. The press allowed the dissemination of information on a wide scale. And though the hardware has changed, the power of the written word for the masses still changes societies and sparks revolutions to this day.

7. the optical lens
A while back. Not only do lenses help people see better or take photographs, they also allow scientists to view everything from bacteria to galaxies, worlds that would have remained hidden without its ability to extend the human eye.

8. television
About the 1930's-40's. Radio was great, but when people could see things in full motion that they would never see in real life, that shaped Western culture like nothing else. The sharing of a common experience between people far flung from each other united a national culture and forever changed the landscape of American society and politics.

9. the assembly line
Early twentieth century. Ford saw meatpackers splitting up a job on a conveyor belt and thought he could do it with cars. The result? You didn't have to be rich to own a Model-T. And now, the average consumer can access goods at cheap prices and ushered in the middle class.

10. the jet engine
Mid-twentieth century. Air travel has shrunk the world. Seeing the Eiffel Tower in Paris or viewing Mount Fuji over breakfast is no longer a dream. International trade and political diplomacy depends heavily on this miraculous form of transportation that has united the planet so that no one is ever too far away from anyone else.
in no specific order:

The Computer (Thank you)
The Internet (how can i answer this question right?)
The Printing Press (Writing)
Art (Aesthetics and what to do when you're bored)
Sports (Fitness)
Condoms and Contraceptives (Safety first!)
The Telephone/Comm devices (HELLO?)
Music (classical period, influenced almost everything today)
Kitchen stove (we need to eat)
Toilet Bowl (THIS IS DEFINITELY IMPORTANT: Sanitation)

With all these, you can live.
Hand tools.
Agriculture.
Writing.
Wheel.
Press. (Printed books)

More recently:

Optical instruments.
Steam engines.
Petrol engines.
Electricity.
Telegraph.
Radio.
Airplanes.
Rockets.
Atomic energy.
Transistors.
Computers.
Internet.
I am sure that there are more thought out lists but here is an attempt off the top of my head. My list of inventions is more of generalities, and none of them can be easily assigned a date, as the end product that changed society is the result of multiple cycles of improvement.

1. The fossil fuel engine. (cars,trains,ships). Allowed for transportation at long distances of people and goods to become practical.
The efficient transportation of food is what allows the creation of the modern city, and the large world population.

2. Modern agriculture. The productivity of agriculture is 2-4 times what it was 100 years ago. That increase in productivity has allowed much of mankind to leave the farms to move to the cities, providing the labor for mankinds other advances. The components of the improvement are modern fertilizers, crop breeding and mechanization.

3. The assembly line production of goods.
Increased the production efficiency of complex goods to the point that they became cheap enough to be purchased by average individuals.

4. Communications -Telegraph, Telephone Radio
Allowed coordination of transport, of goods and people, allowing needs at different locations to be identified and delivery of goods and people coordinated.

5. The computer, allowed processing and storage of massive ammounts of information. Without the computer the efficiency of communication, transportation and industry would fall to the point that the modern society could no longer function.

6. Recorded media, in film and sound.
The change that allowed entertainment to become an act of watching/listinging to recordings and not live performances has had profound impacts on how we spend our leasure time.

7. Air travel.
The change brought about by efficent air travel can reduce by a factor of 10 the time it takes to travel even compared to the modern transportaion by other cars/trains etc.

8. The modern corparation.
The changes brought about by the corparation allowed groups of people to produce products to complex to be produced by individuals, and at efficencies and scales that could never be achieved by government run or privately run businesses.

9. Sanitation. The concept efficiently removing waste and trash from cities has allowed their growth with far fewer epidemics of disease.

10. Medicine. The understanding of the causes of disease, and ways to cure or manage them has allowed the world population to multiply. The net result being more humans to persue other discoveries.
television
telephone
radio
computers
electricity
speakers
cd players
remote controls
toilets


that's all i can name

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