Why sometimes in distribution system, the supply voltage is lower than the rated voltage at the load end?

Most electrical loads are inductive types, which sometimes result into voltage lower than the rated value at the load terminal. Why? and how to control it.

If you mean the line system (60Hz in USA) then you ask about compensation of inductive loads.
You have aways a voltage drop along the line from the main circuit breaker through switches and connectors and cables.
If the load is purely resistive you have the minimum current per watt of effective output power of your device (e.g. motor).
When the load is inductive the current and the voltage is not in-phase but shifted. The in-phase component of the current multiplied with the voltage gives you the effective power. If the current is inductively phase-shifted the total current is higher and therefore produces a greater voltage drop from the circuit breaker via switches, connectors and cables.
Compensating the inductive component with a capacitor next to your device (motor) will reduce the total current and voltage drop to a minimum.

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