What is the difference between petrol diesel and lpg cars?

including the effects on the enviroment

Petrol can be clean in a modern engine and has the highest power output. LPG has the lowest power output but is cleaner and also has less carbon impact. Diesel is the most efficient but it's hard to make a non polluting engine (although it's being done) and the fuel has to be processed to get the sulfur out in order to avoid that source of pollution. It has the most carbon impact but is also the least volatile, making it much safer. Everything is a compromise, and this is no different. There's an issue of how much of each fuel you can get from petroleum, and would we be better off turning naural gas into isopropyl alcohol (an easily handled liquid fuel) than trying to handle it as a compressed gas? Even turning corn into ethanol is having an impact in the U.S. by raising corn prices. Ethanol was much more affordable when corn prices were down, and it's good for farmers to have corn prices rise but the higher prices for corn make ethanol a losing proposition.
Ther's very little difference if any in the cars. The difference lies in how the cars are powered.
They have different fuel systems. Diesels are economical and have long lived engines, but fuel system repairs can be expensive. The fuel itself is smelly and sticky and does not evaporate like petrol. It can be messy fuelling them and often gets on the carpets. They put out less CO2, but so many carcinogens, expert are worried about them. Petrol loses in theory on mpg, but there other costs. If you are green experts say petrol is best in a small car. LPG is good pollution wise, but growth is slowing and Vauxhall have stopped series production of them. Fuelling is cheaper simpIy because the government has been kind to them in terms of duty. They may not be too popular selling secondhand. Seem likely they will prove to be a technological dead end.
LPG and Petrol driven engines generally need a spark plug for the ignition.

Diesel engines operate by 'Compression ' ignition.

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