How does light influence sprouting potatoes?

It turns the sprouts green. It also turns the potato itself green with chlorophyll and also produces solanine, a very poisonous alkaloid.

To keep the potatoes from sprouting they are kept in the dark and at temperatures of about 50 deg F.
I don't exactly know how light does it, but I know temps of about 60 to 70 degrees Farenheit also spark sprout growth in potatoes. When I plant potatoes, I keep them warm until they start sprouting, then I cut them into smaller chunks, each piece with its own "eye". Then I set them in my windowsill for about 2 days so that the cuts callus and then I plant them. But unfortunately, I don't know how it works, it just does!

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