What is dyslexia?

Explain the idea that neural wiring in the brians of dyslexics may be defetive.

Answer:
Dyslexia is a type of reading disability usually manifested as a difficulty with written language, particularly with reading and spelling. Evidence suggests that it is a result of a difference in how the brain processes written and/or verbal language. It is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as deficiencies in intelligence, non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction.

Its basically learning disabilities.
seeing things back assward!
Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), it has been found that people with dyslexia have a deficit in parts of the left hemisphere of the brain involved in reading, which includes the inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and middle and ventral temporal cortex.[40][41]

In 1979 , anatomical differences in the brain of a young dyslexic were documented. Albert Galaburda of Harvard Medical School noticed that the language center in a dyslexic brain showed microscopic differences known as ectopias and microgyria. Both affect the typical six-layer structure of the cortex. An ectopia is a collection of neurons that have pushed up from the lower layers of the cortex into the outermost one. A microgyrus is an area of cortex that includes only four layers instead of six. These differences affect connectivity and functionality of the cortex in critical areas related to auditory processing and visual processing, which seems consistent with the hypothesis that dyslexia stems from a phonological awareness deficit. Others have reported from CAT scan studies that the brains of dyslexic children were symmetrical unlike the asymmetrical brains of non-dyslexic readers who had larger left hemispheres.[42]

It is anecdotally claimed that some dyslexics have trained themselves to cope with their processing difficulties by developing uncannily efficient visual memories which aid in reading and comprehending large quantities of information much faster than is typical.[citation needed] Some dyslexics may show a natural dislike of reading and, as a consequence, compensate by developing unique verbal communication skills, interpersonal expertise, visual-spatial abilities, and leadership skills
It's not the wiring that makes a dyslexic, it's that there's not enough oxygen rich blood flowing throw the occipital, frontal and superior gyrus of the brain
Dyslexia is a type of reading disability usually manifested as a difficulty with written language, particularly with reading and spelling. Evidence suggests that it is a result of a difference in how the brain processes written and/or verbal language. It is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as deficiencies in intelligence, non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction.

Dyslexia is most commonly characterized by difficulties with learning how to decode at the word level, to spell, and to read accurately and fluently. Dyslexic individuals often have difficulty "breaking the code" of sound-letter association (the alphabetic principle), and they may also reverse or transpose letters when writing or confuse letters such as b, d, p, q, especially in childhood. However, dyslexia is not a visual problem that involves reading letters or words backwards or upside down, nor are such reversals a defining characteristic of dyslexia.

Many individuals with dyslexic symptoms involving reading, writing, and spelling also exhibit symptoms in other domains such as poor short-term memory skills, poor personal organizational skills, problems processing spoken language, left-right confusion, difficulties with numeracy or arithmetic, and issues with balance and co-ordination.[2] These symptoms may coexist with or overlap with characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorder, Visual Processing disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivit... Disorder, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, and/or dysgraphia, Sensory Integration Dysfunction, as well as with intellectual giftedness, artistic talent, and/or a visual-spatial learning style. The particular pattern of symptoms and traits varies with each individual; accordingly, accurate diagnosis may be difficult and subject to conflicting viewpoints.[3]

Evidence that dyslexia is a neurological syndrome is substantial. Research also suggests an association with biochemical and genetic markers.[4][5][6] However, experts disagree over the precise definition and criteria for diagnosis, and some advocate that the term dyslexia be dropped altogether and replaced with the term reading disorder or reading disability (RD). Because reading skills occur on a continuum with no clear distinction between typical readers and dyslexic readers, some experts assert that the term dyslexia should be reserved for the two to five percent with the most severe reading deficits. [7]
Word blindness.
As a person who has dyslexia and who's daughter's also have dyslexia I would say that the person who has the closes answer to what the nureo-psychologist told me is Light. If you would like it explained to you by someone who experinces it every day and who had to fight to get my daughter dignosed so that she could get the services that she needs. There are three people in my family who have dyslexia, we all three expericnece it differntly. My older daughter experinces it by transposing letters with in a word or sometimes words with in a sentence. If you're in the car with her and she gives you directions do the opposite of what she says. If she tells you that you should turn left she means right and she'll be pointing right but saying left. With my 15 year old dyslexia is very serious it's hard for her to spell and for her to read. She transposes letters, words, and numbers. She'll add letters to words especailly "e's" becasue she knows that that is the most used letter of the alphbet. She gets confused if you ask her to do more than one thing at a time and she really has trouble putting sentences togethers to make a paragraph. She also has processing issues with other things besides reading. With me it was almost impossible for me to learn how to read. I was in the fifth grade and I couldn't read above a second grade reading level even though my parents had sent me to school each summer and every saturday from the end of the first grade until than. I learned to read because in the fith grade I had a major operation on my hip which kept me home and with a home tutor that year and she knew enought to know that something wasn't right but they didn't really know to much about learining disablities in the mid 60's. I couldn't spell I couldn't learn to read using phonics, The letters would jump off the page if I tried to read for more than five minutes. I mean it it seemed like the letters were dancing around on the page. We concentrated on my reading and that year with a lot of help and fustration I learned how to read. I"m not sure that I'd ever learned to read well if I hadn't been out of school that year. So as you can see dyslexia can come in many forms. For some reason The brain does not process written information in dyslexics the way that it's done in "normal" people. I"ve heard that it affects a section of the brain that deals with information but no one has ever said that it has to do with wiring. I will ask my nureo-psychologist when I see him on thursday.

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